The Microsystem The microsystem is the small, immediate environment the child lives in. Children's microsystems will include any immediate relationships or organizations they interact with, such as their immediate family or caregivers and their school or daycare. How these groups or organizations interact with the child will have an effect on how the child grows; the more encouraging and nurturing these relationships and places are, the better the child will be able to grow. Furthermore, how a child acts or reacts to these people in the microsystem will affect how they treat her in return.
Puberty Upper body of a teenage boy. The structure has changed to resemble an adult form. Puberty is a period of several years in which rapid physical growth and psychological changes occur, culminating in sexual maturity. The average age of onset of puberty is at 11 for girls and 12 for boys.
Hormones play an organizational role, priming the body to behave in a certain way once puberty begins,  and an active role, referring to changes in hormones during adolescence that trigger behavioral and physical changes.
It is the stage of life characterized by the appearance and development of secondary sex characteristics for example, a deeper voice and larger adam's apple in boys, and development of breasts and more curved and prominent hips in girls and a strong shift in hormonal balance towards an adult state.
This is triggered by the pituitary glandwhich secretes a surge of hormonal agents into the blood stream, initiating a chain reaction to occur.
The male and female gonads are subsequently activated, which puts them into a state of rapid growth and development; the triggered gonads now commence the mass production of the necessary chemicals.
The testes primarily release testosteroneand the ovaries predominantly dispense estrogen. The production of these hormones increases gradually until sexual maturation is met.
Some boys may develop gynecomastia due to an imbalance of sex hormonestissue responsiveness or obesity. The first facial hair to appear tends to grow at the corners of the upper lip, typically between 14 and 17 years of age.
This is followed by the appearance of hair on the upper part of the cheeks, and the area under the lower lip. Facial hair is often present in late adolescence, around ages 17 and 18, but may not appear until significantly later.
Early maturing boys are usually taller and stronger than their friends. Pubescent boys often tend to have a good body image, are more confident, secure, and more independent.
However, early puberty is not always positive for boys; early sexual maturation in boys can be accompanied by increased aggressiveness due to the surge of hormones that affect them.
Nearly half of all American high school girls' diets are to lose weight.
Girls attain reproductive maturity about four years after the first physical changes of puberty appear.
Adolescence is marked in red at top right. Growth spurt The adolescent growth spurt is a rapid increase in the individual's height and weight during puberty resulting from the simultaneous release of growth hormones, thyroid hormonesand androgens.
The weight gained during adolescence constitutes nearly half of one's adult body weight. The first places to grow are the extremities—the head, hands and feet—followed by the arms and legs, then the torso and shoulders.
During puberty, bones become harder and more brittle.
At the conclusion of puberty, the ends of the long bones close during the process called epiphysis. There can be ethnic differences in these skeletal changes. For example, in the United States of America, bone density increases significantly more among black than white adolescents, which might account for decreased likelihood of black women developing osteoporosis and having fewer bone fractures there.
This process is different for females and males. Before puberty, there are nearly no sex differences in fat and muscle distribution; during puberty, boys grow muscle much faster than girls, although both sexes experience rapid muscle development. In contrast, though both sexes experience an increase in body fat, the increase is much more significant for girls.
Frequently, the increase in fat for girls happens in their years just before puberty. The ratio between muscle and fat among post-pubertal boys is around three to one, while for girls it is about five to four. This may help explain sex differences in athletic performance.
These changes lead to increased strength and tolerance for exercise. Sex differences are apparent as males tend to develop "larger hearts and lungs, higher systolic blood pressure, a lower resting heart rate, a greater capacity for carrying oxygen to the blood, a greater power for neutralizing the chemical products of muscular exercise, higher blood hemoglobin and more red blood cells".
For example, girls tend to reduce their physical activity in preadolescence   and may receive inadequate nutrition from diets that often lack important nutrients, such as iron.Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) first appeared in the DSM-III in , cognitive and emotional development of children and adolescents.
DIAGNOSIS AND ASSESSMENT. reduce sympathetic arousal and have been shown to be effective in treating the . This is common in adults and children going through traumatic disorders. Effects of Trauma When faced with a dangerous situation, people in most cases go through feelings of fear and helplessness.
Find great deals for Treating Traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents: How to Foster Resilience Through Attachment, Self-Regulation, and Competency by Kristine M.
Kinniburgh and Margaret E. Blaustein (, Paperback). Shop with confidence on eBay! Dissociative identity disorder (DID), formerly known as multiple personality disorder, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring personality states.
There is often trouble remembering certain events, beyond what would be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. These states alternately show in a person's behavior; presentations, however, are variable. An overview of how traumatic experiences affect children and teenagers.
Provides information on treatment. skip to page content. Attention A T users. EMDR is effective in treating both children and adults with PTSD, yet studies indicate that the eye movements are not needed to make it work.
The National Center for PTSD does not provide. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways.