First-degree blood relative ie, parent, full-sibling, child with a history of high-risk thrombophilia eg, antithrombin deficiency, double heterozygosity or homozygosity for FVL or prothrombin GA ; or First-degree blood relative ie, parent, full-sibling, child with venous thromboembolism VTE before age 50 years; or First unprovoked eg, from an unknown cause VTE at any age especially age less than 50 years ; or Individual with a first VTE AND a first-degree blood family member ie, parent, full-sibling, child with a VTE occurring before age 50 years; or Individual with history of recurrent VTE; or Venous thrombosis at unusual sites eg, cerebral, mesenteric, portal and hepatic veins ; or VTE associated with the use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy HRT ; or VTE during pregnancy or the puerperium. Aetna considers Factor V Leiden genetic testing experimental and investigational for all other indications because its effectiveness for indications other than the ones listed above has not been established. Aetna considers Factor V HR2 allele DNA mutation analysis experimental and investigational because its effectiveness has not been established.
The eye is a sense organ containing receptors sensitive to light intensity and colour. In the eye you should be able to identify the following structures on a diagram of the eye and explain how their structure is related to their function: Know that accommodation is the process of changing the shape of the lens to focus on near or distant objects.
To focus on a near object the ciliary muscles contract, the suspensory ligaments loosen, the lens is then thicker and refracts light rays more strongly. To focus on a distant object the ciliary muscles relax, the suspensory ligaments are pulled tight, the lens is then pulled thin and only slightly refracts light rays.
Two common defects of the eyes are myopia short sightedness and hyperopia long sightedness in which rays of light do not focus on the retina.
Generally these defects are treated with spectacle lenses which refract the light rays so Polydactyly a genetic disorder they do focus on the retina. New technologies now include hard and soft contact lenses, laser surgery to change the shape of the cornea and a replacement lens in the eye.
You should be able to interpret ray diagrams, showing these two common defects of the eye and demonstrate how spectacle lenses correct them. The thermoregulatory centre contains receptors sensitive to the temperature of the blood.
The skin contains temperature receptors and sends nervous impulses to the thermoregulatory centre. If the body temperature is too high, blood vessels dilate vasodilation and sweat is produced from the sweat glands.
Both these mechanisms cause a transfer of energy from the skin to the environment. If the body temperature is too low, blood vessels constrict vasoconstrictionsweating stops and skeletal muscles contract shiver.
HT only You should be able to explain how these mechanisms lower or raise body temperature in a given context. The endocrine system is composed of glands which secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream.
The blood carries the hormone to a target organ where it produces an effect. Compared to the nervous system, the effects are slower, but, act for longer. These hormones in turn act on other glands to stimulate other hormones to be released to bring about effects.
You should be able to identify the position of the following on a diagram of the human body: If the blood glucose concentration is too high, the pancreas produces the hormone insulin that causes glucose to move from the blood into the cells.
In liver and muscle cells excess glucose is converted to glycogen for storage. You should be able to explain how insulin controls blood glucose sugar levels in the body.
Type 1 diabetes is a disorder in which the pancreas fails to produce sufficient insulin. It is characterised by uncontrolled high blood glucose levels and is normally treated with insulin injections.
In Type 2 diabetes the body cells no longer respond to insulin produced by the pancreas. A carbohydrate controlled diet and an exercise regime are common treatments. Obesity is a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes. You should be able to compare Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes and explain how they can be treated.GENETIC ANOMALIES OF CATS , Sarah Hartwell.
The following categories of defect are frequently used to describe feline genetic anomalies. WHAT IS POLYDACTYLY? Polydactyly, or extra digits, is a common trait among cats, particularly it seems, among Celtic cats and cats on part of America's Eastern coast and South West Britain.
Polydactyly or polydactylism, also known as hyperdactyly, is a congenital physical anomaly in humans and animals resulting in supernumerary fingers and/or toes. Polydactyly is the opposite of oligodactyly.
Genetic disorders are conditions that have some origin in an individual's genetic make-up. Many of these disorders are inherited and are governed by the same genetic rules . Genetic disorders are a topic in biology that can not be avoided.
The fact is that genetic disorders can happen in humans, plants or animal. No one and nothing is safe from a genetic disorder.A genetic disorder can appear in the first years off life, or can appear much later in life when least expected.
A basic principal of biology states that the .
May 08, · Polydactyly is a condition in which a person has more than five fingers per hand or five toes per foot. It is the most common birth defect of the hand and foot. Polydactyly can occur as an isolated finding such that the person has no other physical anomalies or intellectual impairment.