As the scholar Diana Eck reminds us, for most of our history our religious discourse was dominated by a culturally conservative European heritage—people like me.
In CE, in recognition of his claims to prophethood, Muhammad was invited to rule the city of Medina.
At the time the local Arab tribes of Aus and Khazraj dominated the city, and were in constant conflict. Medinans saw in Muhammad an impartial outsider who could resolve the conflict.
Muhammad and his followers thus moved to Medina, where Muhammad drafted the Medina Charter. This document made Muhammad the ruler, and recognized him as the Prophet of Allah.
The laws Muhammad established during his rule, based on the revelations of the Quran and doing of Muhammad, are considered by Muslims to be Sharia or Islamic law, which Islamic movements seek to establish in the present day.
Muhammad gained a widespread following and an army, and his rule expanded first to the city of Mecca and then spread through the Arabian peninsula through a combination of diplomacy and military conquest.
Today many Islamist or Islamic democratic parties exist in almost every democracy with a Muslim majority. Many militant Islamic groups are also working in different parts of world. The controversial term Islamic fundamentalism has also been coined by some non- Muslims to describe the political and religious philosophies of some militant Islamic groups.
Both of these terms Islamic democracy and Islamic fundamentalism lump together a large variety of groups with varying histories, ideologies and contexts.
It constituted a formal agreement between Muhammad and all of the significant tribes and families of Yathrib later known as Medinaincluding MuslimsJewsChristians  and Pagans. The document was drawn up with the explicit concern of bringing to an end the bitter intertribal fighting between the clans of the Aws Aus and Khazraj within Medina.
To this effect it instituted a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, Christian and Pagan communities of Medina bringing them within the fold of one community—the Ummah. Caliphate and Islamic ethics After death of Muhammad, his community needed to appoint a new leader, giving rise to the title Caliphmeaning "successor".
Thus the subsequent Islamic empires were known as Caliphates. Sunni Muslims believed the caliphate was elective, and any Muslim might serve as one. These institutions resulted in the development of a class of ulema classical Islamic scholars who could serve as qadis Sharia-court judgesimams of mosques and madrasah teachers.
The political terminology of the Islamic state was all the product of this period.
Thus, medieval legal terms such as khalifashariafiqhmaddhabjizyaand dhimmi all remain part of modern Islamic vocabulary. An important Islamic concept concerning the structure of ruling is shuraor consultation with people regarding their affairs, which is the duty of rulers mentioned in two verses in the Quran3: Islamic democracy According to a number of scholars and preachers, the concepts of liberalism and democratic participation were already present in the medieval Islamic world.
Abu Bakr Al-Baqillanian Ashari Islamic scholar and Maliki lawyer, wrote that the leader of the Muslims simply should be from the majority. Candidates were usually from the same lineage as the deceased leader but they were not necessarily his sons.American religion and politics.
These individuals tend to account for important variance in religious beliefs and behaviors in the United States. Without at least some variance in religious beliefs and behaviors measures there can be no observed relationship between different aspects of religion and politics.
The religion and political views of Anderson Cooper Religion Cooper's mother is a Catholic, but Cooper won't talk about his personal . Aug 29, · Chapter 6: Social and Political Views Jews are among the most strongly liberal, Democratic groups in U.S.
There are more than twice as many self-identified Jewish liberals as conservatives, while among the general public, this balance is . Explore the affiliations, demographics, religious practices and political beliefs of each group using our interactive database.
Mormons identify with the Republican Party or say they lean toward the GOP, compared with 19% who identify as or lean Democratic – .
The inner beliefs of the presidents are much more difficult to establish than church membership. While some presidents have been relatively voluble about religion, many have been reticent to the point of complete obscurity.
Researchers have tried to draw conclusions from patterns of churchgoing or religious references in political speeches. Nov 01, · Political Party Affiliation Follow the RSS feed for this page: See the latest Pew Research Center data on U.S. political party affiliation, including trends in voting and elections.