Louis althusser essay

On the Reproduction of the Conditions of Production [1] I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint. Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year.

Louis althusser essay

How to Write a Summary of an Article? Louis Althusser In his essay, Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses, Louis Althusser demonstrates that in order to exist, a social formation is required to essentially, continuously and perpetually reproduce the productive forces labour-powerthe conditions of production and the relations of Louis althusser essay.

The reproduction of productive forces is ensured by the wage system which pays a minimum amount to the workers so that they appear to work day after day, thereby limiting their vertical mobility. The reproduction of the conditions of production and the reproduction of the relations of production happens through the State Apparatuses which are insidious machinations controlled by the capitalist ruling ideology in the context of a class struggle to repress, exploit, extort and subjugate the ruled class.

He scrutinizes this structural metaphor by discussing the superstructure in detail. A close study of the superstructure is necessitated due to its relative autonomy over the base and its reciprocal action on the base. Althusser regards the State as a repressive apparatus which is used by the ruling class as a tool to suppress and dominate Louis althusser essay working class.

Louis althusser essay

According to Althusser, the basic function of the Repressive State Apparatus Heads of State, government, police, courts, army etc. The Repressive state apparatus RSA is controlled by the ruling class, because more often than not, the ruling class possesses State power.

However, what unites the disparate ISAs is the fact that they are ultimately controlled by the ruling ideology. The RSA function predominantly by means of repression and violence and secondarily by ideology whereas the ISA functions predominantly by ideology and secondarily by repression and violence.

The ISA functions in a concealed and a symbolic manner. He declares that the School has supplanted the Church as being the crucial ISA which augments the reproduction of the relations of production i. The Educational ISAs, which assume a dominant role in a Capitalist economy, conceal and mask the ruling class ideology behind its liberating qualities so that their hidden agendas become inconspicuous to the parents of the students.

In the same sense that Freud had stated that the unconscious was eternal, he hypothesizes that ideology too is eternal due to its omnipresence. Therefore, ideology in general has no history.

Althusser posits that it is not possible for a class to hold State power unless and until it exercises its hegemony domination over and in the ISA at the same time.

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The importance of ISAs is understood in the wake of class struggles because ISAs are not only a crucial stake in class struggle but they are also the site of class struggle. The resistances of the exploited classes are able to find means and opportunities to express themselves in the ISAs to overpower the dominant class.

Althusser explains the structure and functioning of ideology by presenting two theses. Firstly, he posits that ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence.

This distortion of reality is caused by material alienation and by the active imagination of oppressive individuals who base their domination and exploitation on the falsified representations of the world in order to enslave the relatively passive minds of the oppressed.

Secondly, he posits that ideology always has a material existence in the form of concrete entities or apparatuses ISAs. This false consciousness inspires and instigates the subject to behave in certain ways, adopt certain attitudes and participate in certain regular practices which conform to the ideology within which he recognizes himself as a subject.

Hence, despite the imaginary distortion by ideology, a subject derives his beliefs from the ideas which become his material actions and practices governed by material rituals which are all defined by material ideological apparatus and derived from the same.

The Family ISA is at work even before a child is born because it predetermines the identity of the child before its birth. Hence, an individual is always-already a subject. In reality, the subject is subjugated, limited, restricted and controlled by ideology to such an extent that he has limited freedom and diminutive individual agency.Sep 25,  · [In the following essay, Block analyzes the relationships between the works of Althusser, Marx, and Hegel.] The English translation of Louis Althusser's Le future dure longtemps presents a curiosity.

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Louis Althusser was born on October 16 th, in Birmandreis, a suburb of regardbouddhiste.comg from Alsace on his father’s side of the family, his grandparents were pieds noirs, or French citizens who had chosen to settle in regardbouddhiste.com the time of his birth, Althusser’s father was a .

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Louis Althusser “Lenin and Philosophy” and Other Essays. Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes towards an Investigation).

Louis Althusser. On Marxism. Written: ; Source: Louis Althusser highly instructive essay, Lenin discusses the scientific method of Marx’s to Capital and Engels’ Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, on the one hand, and the monographs Stalin has written on Marxism and Linguistics and Economic Problems of Socialism in the.

Louis Althusser – French Marxist philosopher. The following entry presents an overview of Althusser's career. Louis Althusser was a French Marxist philosopher who had a strong following.

On Marxism, by Louis Althusser