The time has come to rethink wilderness. This will seem a heretical claim to many environmentalists, since the idea of wilderness has for decades been a fundamental tenet—indeed, a passion—of the environmental movement, especially in the United States. For many Americans wilderness stands as the last remaining place where civilization, that all too human disease, has not fully infected the earth. It is an island in the polluted sea of urban-industrial modernity, the one place we can turn for escape from our own too-muchness.
Approximately 10 million were dropped on Northern Iraq, presumably from Turkey. The leaflets and themes were approved by General Schwarzkopf's staff, and then printed independently in Saudi Arabia and Turkey. They provided radio and TV support, broadcast tactical loudspeaker messages and produced 29 million leaflets.
The leaflets were delivered by everything from balloons to Bs; some were even smuggled into Baghdad itself! PSYOP messages persuaded approximately 44 percent of the Iraqi army to desert, more than 17, to defect, and more than 87, to surrender.
Integrating their efforts with those of the U. The 8th PSYOP Taskforce provided support to Urban Freedom, the liberation of Kuwait City, and to Task Force Freedom, the consolidation operation in Kuwait, with the mission of re-establishing radio and print activities to support repatriation and settlement of the capital.
In8th POB supported U. Far away from headlines and newscasts, PSYOP initiatives were bombarding Saddam's empire in the form of wave upon wave of leaflet and radio assaults. Actual leaflet development occurred at Riyadhwith digitized imagery transmission to PDB printing facilities at Dhahran.
Target analysis effort culminated in a PSYOP campaign which emphasized continual themes of the futility of resistance; inevitability of defeat; surrender; desertion and defection; abandonment of equipment; and blaming the war on Saddam Hussein.
During the pre-ground war campaign, key action leaflet verbs were developed for exploitation such as: Saudi Arabia was very concerned about countering Iraqi propaganda targeted toward Saudi Arabia and the ability of Saudi military officers to participate in Central Command and Coalition efforts to plan, stage and conduct PSYOP campaigns against Iraqi occupation forces in Kuwait.
They worked with personnel from the 4th PSYOP Group and took part in the design of leaflets and the writing of leaflet text. We know a lot about the paper projects produced by the 4th PSYOP Group and its subordinate battalions and detachments prior to and during the war.
As the start of the shooting war approached we find them printing more serious items such as enemy prisoner of war EPW cards on 2 January and rules of engagement cards on 3 January. For example, on 14 JanuaryC aircraft droppedleaflets.
There are several excellent printed publications that depict psychological warfare leaflets prepared by the United States Army during the war.
Major Whitenack mentions the loudspeakers in his thesis: A deficiency in U. Drawn primarily from locations in the U.
Once assigned, loudspeaker teams were tasked with broadcasting specific, audience taped messages upon the Iraqi military. In addition to deceptive noises and sound effects, tapes were used in issuing vocal appeals and instructions to the Iraqis, to coerce them into surrendering.
The use of loudspeakers is mentioned in greater depth in Special Operations Forces: Radio and tactical loudspeaker appeals from 66 teams helped encourage tens of thousands of Iraqi soldiers deployed in Kuwait to desert and defect. In one instance, almost Iraqis surrendered en masse to the st Airborne Division just before the ground assault was launched.
In another case, over 1, enemy troops, including a general officer, were standing in formation, ready to surrender when the Marines came ashore on Faylaka Island PSYOP appeals ultimately helped persuade over 86, Iraqis to surrender in the Kuwaiti theater.
On the subject of sound effect tapes, one of the more interesting was the sound of a baby crying. Such tapes had been used in some earlier wars, specifically Vietnam. In this case, the sound of the baby crying all night was considered demoralizing and especially effective against troops that were cut off or out of communication with their officers.
The men pictured, left to right, top to bottom are: The picture was taken after operations against an Iraqi Tank battalion 16 armored vehicles and a dug in Infantry regiment that fired mortars and artillery at the team while broadcasting surrender appeals.
They hold a surrender flag from the Iraqi infantry. A Kuwaiti linguist named Mohammad was assigned to the team.
Mohammad was a Lieutenant in the Kuwaiti Army who had escaped after the Iraqi invasion. After the ceasefire the team patrolled the area between Basra and the Kuwaiti border broadcasting that the war was over. The team leader said in part: After the ceasefire, we recorded our own messages.
I would write what I wanted the message to say, an interpreter would write out the message in Arabic, a second Arabic speaker would verify the message was translated correctly, and then the first interpreter would record the message to be broadcast.
Here are the last two messages we recorded and broadcast in Iraq before being sent back to Saudi Arabia. Iraqi soldiers; a ceasefire has been declared. Stop fighting; leave your vehicles and your positions. Stack you weapons and move to open assembly areas and await further instructions.
A ceasefire is in effect. Many of your Arab brothers are now safe.Writing "Desert Island" A useful activity for intermediate level students. They are on a deserted island and they are given a list of objects.
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Warning: As you click on the links below, you are leaving the Cobb County/Garrison Mill Website. Linked to Kensuke's Kingdom Flipchart Target sheets Examples from pupils pieces of writing so pupils can discuss what is good/bad about pieces of writing.
The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature by William Cronon. Print-formatted version: PDF In William Cronon, ed., Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., , The time has come to rethink wilderness.
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