September 12th Hegelian Dialectic. The Solution to the Problem is already planned and calculated long before the Problem has even been presented.
But is the Red Planet really the best target for a human colony, or should we look somewhere else? Should we pick a world closer to Earth, namely the moon? The Red Planet has an atmosphere containing carbon dioxide, which can be converted into fuel while also supporting plants that can make food and oxygen.
These features could allow Martian colonists to be self-sufficient. Over decades, continued expansion in that vein could achieve something called paraterraforming.
This means creation of an Earthlike environment on the Mars surface that could include not only farms but also parks, forests, and lakes, all enclosed to maintain adequate air pressure.
While the small spacecraft in which astronauts fly today carry food and oxygen as consumables and use a simply chemical method to remove carbon dioxide from the air, this type of life-support system will not swing on a colony. As on Earth, air, water, and food will have to come through carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles.
This means engineering the planet enough to support humans and other Earth life without domes and other enclosed structures. Terraforming Mars would require that the atmosphere be thickened and enriched with nitrogen and oxygen while the average temperature of the planet must be increased substantially.
To get started, terraformers might seed the world with certain microorganisms to increase the amount of methane in the Martian air, because methane is a much stronger greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.
They also would seed dark plants and algae across the surface, thereby darkening the planet so that it absorbs more sunlight. With the right combination of plants and well-selected microorganisms, planetary engineers could generate the needed oxygen and nitrogen.
During all of the centuries needed for terraforming, colonists would inhabit and expand the system of paraterraformed structures. Still, there are some aspects of the plan that are less than ideal — and indeed, might point our skyward gazes toward a different destination altogether.
The Problem of Distance A colony totally isolated from Earth would need significant genetic diversity to avoid the disease risks that plague smaller populations. According to a study published earlier this year, a multi-generation starship carrying people whose descendants would colonize a planet orbiting a nearby star would need a population of at least 10, and possibly closer to 40, This certainly would fulfill the population requirement, but a further distance is a challenge both in fuel and in time.
The Musk plan involves sending multiple crafts each with a total payload of 15 tons per trip. This gives us a ratio of approximately 5 tons per person. Some of the tonnage is due to the fuel needed to accelerate the ship from low Earth orbit to escape velocity, and this may not differ between Mars and closer sites, such as the moon.
Second, the time it takes to transport settlers. A colonization program will be efficient only if each transport ship is designed to make multiple trips back and forth. In that case, transporting 10, people to Mars the minimum number needed for healthy genetic diversity requires voyages from Earth, while 4, voyages would be needed to reach the 80, colonist milestone.
Certainly, the advent of advanced propulsion technologies, shrinking the travel time between Earth and Mars from a year or so down to weeks would change these considerations, but right now the various Mars colonization proposals at least the developed ones are based on the old-fashioned chemical engines that have sent the current MAVEN probe toward Mars at turtle speed.
Doing this, with the same type of program 25 ships each carrying 20 peoplewe get the first 10, to the moon in less than six months, and the first 80, in less than four years. And, finally, being closer would help with ongoing rapid access to and from Earth.
But getting to that point could take some time, and at the beginning some colonists might need to be evacuated. There should be a growing medical capability on the colony, but initially cases of very serious illness and certain injuries might be better handled on Earth.
This would not be an option if the travel time were measured in months, or even weeks. And what if there were a planetary disaster on Earth in the early decades of the colony?
From a location close to Earth, the colony might actually be able to provide some help. Close to Home A colony on the moon, on the other hand, would be within easy reach. Like Mars, the moon has caverns and caves that can be sealed for paraterraforming, along with craters that can be enclosed with pressure domes.
A colony in that location would have access to large deposits of water ice and would be situated on the boundary between lunar sunlight and darkness. Its proponents estimate a Shackleton dome colony could support 10, settlers after just 15 years of assembly by autonomous robots.
In the event of an Earth-wide disaster, evacuating people to the moon would be far easier than to Mars. Another, even nearer option would be free space colonies.
These would be built using materials mined from the moon or from near-Earth asteroids. The colonies could be located in the Earth-moon system at sites that are gravitationally advantageous, known as Lagrangian points.Human astronauts are such a bother when it comes to space exploration.
The space environment is pretty much the opposite of the conditions that humans evolved for, to the point where an unprotected human exposed to space will die horribly in about ninety seconds flat. Geology of the Galapagos Islands - INTRODUCTION In Charles Darwin, aboard the vessel HMS Beagle, first set foot on the Islands of the Galapagos Archipeligo setting off on what would become the inspiration for the most important innovation in biological sciences either before or since.
Soup or stew? What is the difference between soup and stew? On the most basic level there is no absolute difference. Like ancient pottage, both soup and stew descend from economical, easy, healthy, forgiving, and locally sourced family feeds.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism, and excretion. The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the availability and palatability of foods. INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CRITERIA 78 DITHIOCARBAMATE PESTICIDES, ETHYLENETHIOUREA AND PROPYLENETHIOUREA: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the United Nations . This is “Achieving Optimal Health: Wellness and Nutrition”, chapter 15 from the book An Introduction to Nutrition (v. ). For details on it (including licensing), click here.
Gelatin is a natural protein that is derived from the partial hydrolysis of collagen, which exists in the skin and bones of animals. Gelatin is intended for human consumption and mainly used as a gelling agent, a clarifying agent (drink), binding agent for light sensitive silver halides and a thickening agent as well.
INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CRITERIA 78 DITHIOCARBAMATE PESTICIDES, ETHYLENETHIOUREA AND PROPYLENETHIOUREA: A GENERAL INTRODUCTION This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the United Nations .
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