The demands of sugar—labourers, capital, machines, technical skills, and markets—strained ethnic relations, aggravated political and economic differences between metropolis and colony, and laid the foundation for the break with Spain in Spanish colonial administration was corrupt, inefficient, and inflexible.
The British North American colonists had just helped to win a world war and most, like Rush, had never been more proud to be British. And yet, in a little over a decade, those same colonists would declare their independence and break away from the British Empire.
Seen fromnothing would have seemed as improbable as the American Revolution. A revolution fought in the name of liberty allowed slavery to persist.
Resistance to centralized authority tied disparate colonies ever closer together under new governments. The revolution created politicians eager to foster republican selflessness and protect the public good but also encouraged individual self-interest and personal gain.
But once unleashed, these popular forces continued to shape the new nation and indeed the rest of American history. In this section, we will look broadly at some of the long-term political, intellectual, cultural, and economic developments in the eighteenth century that set the context for the crisis of the s and s.
Two factors contributed to these failures. Constant war was politically consuming and economically expensive. Second, competing visions of empire divided British officials. Old Whigs and their Tory supporters envisioned an authoritarian empire, based on conquering territory and extracting resources.
The radical or patriot Whigs based their imperial vision on trade and manufacturing instead of land and resources.
They argued that economic growth, not raising taxes, would solve the national debt. There were occasional attempts to reform the administration of the colonies, but debate between the two sides prevented coherent reform. InJames Otis Jr. Many colonists came to see their assemblies as having the same jurisdiction over them that Parliament exercised over those in England.
They interpreted British inaction as justifying their tradition of local governance. The Crown and Parliament, however, disagreed.
In both Britain and the colonies, land was the key to political participation, but because land was more easily obtained in the colonies, a higher proportion of male colonists participated in politics.
These ideas—generally referred to as the ideology of republicanism—stressed the corrupting nature of power and the need for those involved in self-governing to be virtuous i.
Patriots would need to be ever vigilant against the rise of conspiracies, centralized control, and tyranny. Only a small fringe in Britain held these ideas, but in the colonies, they were widely accepted.
Perhaps no single philosopher had a greater impact on colonial thinking than John Locke. In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke argued that the mind was originally a tabula rasa or blank slate and that individuals were formed primarily by their environment.
The aristocracy then were wealthy or successful because they had greater access to wealth, education, and patronage and not because they were innately superior.
Locke followed this essay with Some Thoughts Concerning Education, which introduced radical new ideas about the importance of education.Slavery and the origins of the Civil War. By James Illingworth.
Issue #78 and the prospect of a better life, for a fixed term of labor. An indentured servant would contract to work for five or seven years, without pay.
and helpers in the Union army. Blacks also made, in the years leading up to the Civil War, the decisive contribution to. Sugar, or White Gold, as British colonists called it, was the engine of the slave trade that brought millions of Africans to the Americas beginning in the early 16th-century.
In addition, the Spanish war aims included the re-capture from Britain of both East and West Florida that it lost in the Seven Years War () and the return of the western Mediterranean island of Minorca that Spain lost during the War of Spanish Succession ().
Back to home page. International Socialist Review Issue 39, January–February The Life of Tecumseh. A Native War of Independence. By PETER LAMPHERE. Pete Lamphere is a member of the International Socialist Organization in New York City.
May 05, · After the French and Indian War (), also called the Seven Years’ War, Britain was forced to pay off their war debts. The British would try to use the colonies as a way to get more revenue to pay off their huge debt.
Oct 29, · Watch video · The Revolutionary War was an insurrection by American Patriots in the 13 colonies to British rule, resulting in American independence. The Revolutionary War (), also known as the American.